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Newfoundland & Labrador

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° The Maritime Provinces: New Brunswick and Nova Scotia

St. John's

Map of Canadda.

Canada spans an imincorporated city in British North America, its charter dating back to 1785; it is also the largest city in New Brunswick.

Among the earliest Catholic missionaries to visit New Brunswick, which was then part of Acadia, were the Jesuit Fathers, Biard and Mass, in 1611. They remained until after the destruction of Port Royal by Argall in 1613, and were succeeded by Recollects.

With the erection of Quebec into a diocese, special interest was attached to the Acadian missions. Mgr. St. Vallier left the St. Lawrence, 7 May, 1686, proceeded to the St. John, and reached Medoetec, an Indian village eight miles below Woodstock.

Sailortowns of Eastern Canada. Judith Fingard.

There the bishop established a mission, and left it under the direction of Father Simon, a Recollect. Subsequently another mission was formed at Aukpaque. After the death of Fathers Simon and Moireau, the missions on the St. John passed into the hands of the Jesuits, among whom were Fathers Aubery, Loyard, Danielou, Loverga, Audren, and Germain. The Indian church at Medoctec was probably the first erected in New Brunswick. On the original site of this church a small stone tablet was discovered in June, 1890, bearing a Latin inscription the translation of which reads: "To God, most Good and Great, in honour of St. John the Baptist, the Maliseets erected this church A.D. 1717, while Jean Loyard, a priest of the Society of Jesus, was Procurator of the mission."

More than 150,000 Irish had landed in New Brunswick by 1867, making up 85 per cent of all immigrants who came during that period. Although most of them kept going, enough stayed to change the character of Saint John and New Brunswick.

New Brunswick. Indiantown, North End, St John.
Artist: Bartlett, 1842
St. John Canada. Artist, Bartlett, 1842.

Rather than the Loyalist City, Saint John has for a century and a half been an Irish city. And many of those who can trace their family trees back to the Loyalists probably have even more ancestors who were Irish. By the 1850s, Saint John's founding Loyalists "found themselves a minority within their own city." They were certainly outnumbered by the Irish.

Schedule of Atlantic Crossings from English Seaports to Quebec, St. John's and Boston.

Right: Schedule of Atlantic Crossings from English seaports to Quebec, St. John's, Boston

February 16, 1891, Logansport Pharos, Logansport, Indiana, U.S.A.

Reciprocity with Newfoundland Not a Probable Consumation.

WASHINGTON CITY, February 16. The state department is in the dark as to the meaning of a St. John's, Nd. dispatch about a reciprocity treaty having been agreed upon between the United States and Newfoundland. Assistant Secretary Adee says the state department has jurisdiction to make reciprocity treaties in such cases only when the conditions prescribed in the McKinley bill exist, and those conditions, as far as he is informed, do not exist as to Newfoundland.

"I simply know," he added in conclusion, "'nothing about the matter."

The Senators Haven't Heard of It.

If Secretary Blaine has concluded any reciprocity treaty with Newfoundland he has not informed the senate of the fact. The matter has never been brought to the attention of the senate in executive session, and several senators to whom the dispatch from St. Johns was shown say that they know nothing about such an agreement.

One feature of the matter is that the American papers have had frequent specials representing Newfoundlanders as being on the verge of insurrection almost because of the alleged delay of England in ratifying the treaty.

Allan Line Royal Mail Triple Screw Steamer

March 27, 1891, Daily Alta California
San Francisco, California, U.S.A.

The Allan Line and Another Company Working a Big Scheme.

Allan Line Screw Steamer.

Montreal, March 26th. Montague Allan and J. S. Allan of the Allan Steamship Line have arrived in England on business connected with a new steamship project. It ia proposed to form a new company, of which the Naval Construction and Armament Company of Barrow-in-Furness (Cumbria, Great Britain) and the Allan Company will be the chief promoters. Negotiations between the two companies are at present in progress, and they are expected to be successful. The intention is to have the new company take over the existing Allan line of steamers and ran them principally as freight steamers. The new line will be under the control of the Allans and be neutral as between the Grand Trunk and Canadian Pacific railways. The new company is working to secure a Government subsidy. Three or four fast steamers will be built similar to those running to New York, and it is expected traffic to and from Chicago and the Northwest will thus be diverted toward Montreal. Montreal will be the summer port and either Halifax or St. John the winter port.


Glasgow, March 26th. The Allan Steamship Company has purchased the State Line's vessels and the good will of the company.

1899. World's Fleet. Boston Daily Globe

Lloyds Register of Shipping gives the entire fleet of the world as 28,180 steamers and sailing vessels, with a total tonnage of 27,673,628, of which 39 perent are British.

Great Britain10,990 vessels, total tonnage of 10,792,714
United States 3,010 vessels, total tonnage of 2,405,887
Norway 2,528 vessels, tonnage of 1,604,230
Germany 1,676 vessels, with a tonnage of 2,453,334, in which are included her particularly large ships.
Sweden 1,408 vessels with a tonnage of 643, 527
Italy1,150 vessels
France 1,182 vessels

For Historical Comparison
Top 10 Maritime Nations Ranked by Value (2017)

  Country # of Vessels







1 Greece 4,453 206.47 $88.0
2 Japan 4,317 150.26 $79.8
3 China 4,938 159.71 $71.7
4 USA 2,399 55.92 $46.5
5 Singapore 2,662 64.03 $41.7
6 Norway 1,668 39.68 $41.1
7 Germany 2,923 81.17 $30.3
8 UK 883 28.78 $24.3
9 Denmark 1,040 36.17 $23.4
10 South Korea 1,484 49.88 $20.1
Total 26,767 87.21 $466.9

The Project

Maritime Nations, Ships, Sea Captains, Merchants, Merchandise, Ship Passengers and VIPs sailing into San Francisco during the 1800s.



Merchant Shipping

Merchant Shipping.Merchant Shipping and Ancient Commerce.  
History of Merchant Shipping and Ancient CommerceMerchant Shipping and Ancient Commerce.
W. S. Lindsay

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Sources: As noted on entries and through research centers including National Archives, San Bruno, California; CDNC: California Digital Newspaper Collection; San Francisco Main Library History Collection; and Maritime Museums and Collections in Australia, China, Denmark, England, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Wales, Norway, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, etc.

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