The Maritime Heritage Project

Ship Passengers: 1846-1899

World Harbors and International Migration from The Maritime Heritage Project.

The Maritime Heritage Project.

Under Serious Reconstruction.
Due to new WWW and Google formatting guidelines, 18 years worth of coding on more than 2,500 entries is being updated, Also, lists of gold seekers, opportunists and immigrants sailing into San Francisco during the 1800s are going on a new site -- Ship Passengers. This may take awhile. Please stopover from time to time. Thank you.

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Lawbooks: A Selection

Modern law.
Making the Modern American Fiscal State: Law, Politics, and the Rise of Progressive Taxation, 1877-1929
(Cambridge Historical Studies in American Law and Society)
Modern Law.
Ajay K. Mehrotra

10 Books Every Conservative Must Read: Plus Four Not to Miss and One ImpostorLaw books.
Benjamin Wiker, Ph.D.

100 Americans Making Constitutional History:
A Biographical History
Constitutional History.
Melvin I. Urofsky, Editor
100 profiles of the key people behind some of the most important U.S. Supreme Court cases. Edited by Melvin I. Urofsky, a respected constitutional historian, each 2,000-word profile delves into the social and political context behind landmark Court decisions.

A Briefe Declaration for What Manner of Special Nuisance Concerning Private Dwelling Houses, a Man May have His Remedy by Assise, or Other Action as the Case Requires Unfolded in the Arguments (1639)
Digitally preserved and previously accessible only through libraries are now available in print editions. Thousands of books written between 1475 and 1700 are available in individual volumes of high quality historical reproductions.

A Compendyous Treatyse of Sclau[n]dre Declarynge what Sclaundre is, and What it Sygnifyeth, and How many Kyndes of Sclaundre there be. (1545)

Of the Limits of the Penal Branch of Jurisprudence
(The Collected Works of Jeremy Bentham)

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Artists of the WestArtists of the West.

Western ArtWestern Art and Artists.

San Francisco News and Stories: 1800s

Lawyers and Lawbooks

Million Lawyer March.
Million Lawyer March

Lawyers aplenty made their way to early California and seldom has sheer technicality unleavened by common sense been carried further than in the early California courts. Even in the most law-ridden times elsewhere a certain check was exercised by public opinion or the presence of business interests. But here was as yet no public opinion; and business interests, their energies fully taxed by the necessities of a new country, were willing to pay heavily to be let alone. Consequently, lawyers were permitted to play out their fascinating game to their hearts' content, and totally without reference to expedience or to the justice of the case. The battles were indeed intensely technical and shadowy. Points with points were fought bitterly.

Often for days the real case at issue was forgotten . . . One man killed another, on a public street, before many witnesses. The indictment was, however, thrown out and he released because it stated only that the victim was killed by a pistol, and failed to specify that his death was due to the discharge of said pistol. The lawyer who evolved this brilliant idea was greatly admired and warmly congratulated."

From The Gray Dawn, Stuart Edward White

As has been previously pointed out, nowhere before nor since has pure legality been made such a fetish. It was a game played by lawyers, not an attempt to get justice done. Sine, in all criminal cases at least, the prosecution was carried on by one man and his associates, poorly paid and hence of mediocre ability, and the defence conducted by the keenest brains in the professions, it followed that convictions were rare. Homicide in various forms was little frowned upon. Duels were of frequent occurrence, and, in several instances, regular excursions, with tickets, were organized to see them.

Street shootings of a more informal nature were too numerous to count. Invariably an attempt, generally successful, was made to arrest the homicide. If he had money, he hired the best lawyers, and rested secure. If he had no money, he disappeared for a time. Almost everybody had enough money, or enough friends with money, to adopt the former course. Of 1,200 murders -- or "killings" -- committed in the San Francisco of those days, there was just one legal conviction!

It was a point of professional pride with a lawyer to get his client free. Indeed, to fail would be the equivalent to losing a very easy game. The whole battery of technical delays, demurrers, etc., was at his command; a much larger battery than even the absurd criminal courts of our present day can muster. Delays to allow the dispersal of witnesses were easily arranged for, as were changes of venue to courts either prejudiced in favor of the strict interpretation of "law" or frankly venal. Of shadier expedients, such as packing juries, there seemed no end.

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Breach of Promise, Published 1895
Walter Dendy Sadler

Your honourable, high-minded lawyers which means the well-dressed and prosperous had nothing to do with such dirty work; that is, directly. There were plenty of lawyers not so honourable and high minded called in as "counsel." These little lawyers, shoulder strikers, bribe givers and takers, were held in good-humoured contempt by the legal stars -- who employed them! Actual dishonesty was diluted through a number of men. Packing a jury was a fine art. Initially was needed connivance at the sheriff's office. Hence lawyers, as a class, were in politics. Neither the steller lawyer nor the sheriff knew any of the details of the transaction. A sum of money went to the former's "counsel" as expenses, and emerged, considerably diminished, in the sheriff's office as "perquisites." It had gone from the counsel to somebody like Mex Ryan, from him to various plug-uglies, ward heelers, shoulder strikers, from them to one or another of the professional jurymen, and then on the upward curve through teh sheriff's underlings who made out the jury lists to Webb himself. The thing was done.

It this tortuous way many influences were needed. The most honest lawyer's limit as to the queer things he would do depended on his individual conscience. It is extraordinary what long training and the moral support of a whole profession will do toward educating a conscience. Do not despite unduly the lawyers of that day. We have all of us good friends in the legal profession who will defend in court a criminal they know to be guilty as charged. They will urge that no man should go undefended; and will argue themselves into a belief that in such a case "defence" means not merely fair play, but a desperate effort to get him off anyhow -- trained conscience. If such sophistries are sincerely believed by honest men nowadays, it cannot be wondered at that queerer sophistries passed current in a community not five years old. It was difficult to draw the line between teh men who mistakenly believed themselves honest and those who knew themselves dishonest.

September 3, 1853, Daily Alta California, San Francisco

Law Books!

received by
LeCount & Strong
per Clipper Harriet Hoxie

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Waiting for Legal Advice