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49ers 'Round the Horn
Charles R. Schultz's book recounts the thrilling-and at times harrowing-maritime adventure of fortune hunters who sailed from the east coast around Cape Horn to California during the gold rush of 1849. In the first book devoted to the onboard life of thousands of gold seekers, Charles R. Schultz paints a vivid picture of the eighteen-thousand-mile odyssey through several climatic zones and around the vicissitudes of Cape Horn. Drawing upon more than one hundred unpublished diaries, Schultz profiles the individuals who embarked on such journeys and demonstrates how markedly the gold rush voyages differed from general commercial trading and whaling ventures.
Adams, Elizabeth. "A Voyage to California," More Books: Bulletin of the Boston Public Library (January 1941): 3-10. Tells of the acquisition by the Library of the journal of Charles H. Williams of his voyage from New York to San Francisco in the ship Pacific and briefly summarizes the turbulent voyage. Mentions a few other California related items in the Library.
Ament, William S. "By Sea to El Dorado," in Oxcart to Airplane ed. By John Russell McCarthy, vol. VI, Chapter 14, pp. 309-328. Los Angeles: Powell Publishing Company. Brief account of voyages around Cape Horn to California in 1849 and after based upon published accounts and manuscripts in the Huntington Library.
Bates, Morgan. The Gold Rush: Voyage of the Ship Loo Choo Around the Horn in 1849. ed. with an introduction by John B. Goodman, III. Mt. Pleasant, Michigan: Cumming Press, 1977. Reproductions of letters of Morgan Bates, Thomas Blackwood, and Sylvester W. Higgins.
Baur, John E. "The Health Factor in the Gold Rush Era," Pacific Historical Review 18 (January 1949):97-108. Reprinted in John Walton Caugly Rushing for Gold Berkeley: University of California Press, 1849. (American Historical Association, Pacific Coast Branch, Special Publication No. 1).
Browne, J. Ross. Crusoe's Island: A Ramble in the Footsteps of Alexander Selkirk With Sketches of Adventure in California and Washoe . New York: Harper & Brothers, 1864. The first 165 pages contain an account of the conflict between Captain Hall J. Tibbits and the first class passengers in the ship Pacific which Browne calls theAnteus, and the removal of Captain Tibbits by U. S. Consul at Rio de Janeiro and a detailed account of the visit to Juan Fernandez island by eleven passengers in the Pacific.
Browne, John Ross. J. Ross Browne: His Letters, Journals and Writings , ed. by Lina Fergusson Browne. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1969. Contains writings by Browne between 1842 and 1875 including several long letters to his wife while he was a passenger on board the ship Pacific bound from New York, New York to San Francisco in 1849.
|California: Its Past History, Its Present Position, Its Future Prospects
G. A. Fleming
There are two versions of this volume. The one cited here contains two illustrations of views of shipboard life in 1849. One located opposite page 80 is titled "Tracing the Ships Progress," and one located opposite page 136 is titled "Mid-Day Emigrants on Deck." This version also has a page preceding the title page bearing the inscription "The Emigrants Guide to the Golden Land, Shewing Him When to Go, Where to Go and How to Go." The other version lacks the two illustration and the 1850 date and has the inscription "California, Its Past History, Its Present Position, Its Future Prospects" on a page preceding the title page.
Celebration of the Seventy-Third Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence of the United States, on board the Barque "Hannah Sprague." at Sea, July 4th, 1849. South Latitude 18o 28'.--Longitude 38o 10'. New York: Jennings & Co., Printers, 1849. Contains the order of the events of the day as well as the text of the patriotic address which Alfred Wheeler delivered on board the Hannah Sprague bound from New York, New York to San Francisco, California. Among the passengers was at least one company of men known as the New York Commercial and Mining company.
Davis, George. Recollections of a Sea Wanderer's Life (Classic Reprint). Autobiography of an old-time seaman who has sailed in almost every capacity before and abaft the mast, nearly every quarter of the globe, and under the flags of four of the principal maritime nations. New York: A. H. Kellogg, 1887. Pages 304-326 contain a brief account of the voyage from New York, New York to San Francisco, California of the ship Matilda in 1849 under the command of Captain Land.
Davis, Raymond Cazallia. Reminiscences of a Voyage Around the World. Ann Arbor, Michigan: D. D. Chase's Steam Printing House, 1869. Pages 15-176 contain an account of his voyage, September 8, 1849-February 28, 1850, from Bath, Maine to San Francisco, California in the ship Hampton. These reminiscences were first published in the "Youths Department of the Peninsular Courier and Family Visitant", a weekly paper the publisher of the book had been publishing for about five years.
Delgado, James P. To California by Sea: A Maritime History of the California Gold Rush. Columbia: University of South Carolina, 1990
Donovan, Lynn Bonfield, "Day-by Day Records: Diaries from the CHS Library," California Historical Quarterly 54 (Winter 1975): 359-372 and 56 (Spring 1977): 72-81. An annotated bibliography of California Gold Rush journals in the collection of the California Historical Society in San Francisco.
Dutka, Barry L. "New York Discovers Gold! In California," California History 63 ( Fall 1984):313-319 and 341. Based largely upon New York newspaper stories of 1848-1849. Eagleston, John H. "Account of an Early California Voyage," Essex Historical Collections. 12 (No. 2, 1874): 124-131.
Eagleston, John H. "Account of an Early California Voyage." Essex Historical Collections 12: 2 (1874): 124-31. An account of the voyage of the brig Mary & Ellen.
Evans, George W. B. "San Francisco in 1850," Society of California Pioneers Quarterly (December 1925):191-214.
Farwell, Willard B. "Cape Horn and Cooperative Mining in '49," Century Magazine 42 (July 1891): 579-594. An account of the voyage from Boston, Massachusetts to San Francisco, California in the ship Edward Everett in 1849. There were 150 members of the Boston and California Mining and Trading Company on board. Contains several good illustrations of shipboard life during such a voyage.
Flagg, Josiah Foster. A Philadelphia Forty-Niner, Excerpts from His Diary," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 70 (October 1946):390-422.
Frothingham, N. L.: Sermons: Preached In The First Church, Boston, on Sunday, Dec. 17, 1848. Boston: Printed by John Wilson, 1849.
Goodman, John B., III. The Key to the Goodman Encyclopedia of the California Gold Rush Fleet ed. by Daniel Woodward, with an introduction by Neal Harlow. Los Angeles: The Zamorano Club, 1992. Contains an index to the 762 vessels included in Goodman's manuscript encyclopedia now at the Huntington Library in San Moreno, California. Includes name of vessel, rig or type, name of captain, dates of sailing and arrival, port of departure, places stopped during the voyage, when and where the vessel was built, disposition, and trade after arrival in San Francisco.
Granite State Trading, Mining & Agricultural Company. No place: No publisher, . It is possible that the members of this company sailed to San Francisco in the ship Sweden.
Harris, J. Morrison. A Paper Upon California; Read Before the Maryland Historical Society by J. Morrison Harris, Corresponding Secretary, March, 1849. Baltimore: Printed for the Society by John D. Toy, 1849
Hazelton, John Adams. The Hazelton Letters: A Contribution Of Western Americana, ed. By Mary Geneva Bloom. Stockton, California: College of the Pacific, 1958. Reprinted from The Pacific Historian 1 (Nos. 2, 3 and 4). Contains six letters Hazelton wrote to members of his family in New Hampshire. The first two deal with his voyage from Boston, Massachusetts to San Francisco, California in the brig Randolph.
Hotchkiss, Charles F. "California in 1849," The Magazine of History, with Notes and Queries extra No. 191, 48 (No. 23): 133-152. Much of the article deals with an isthmian voyage to California, but it has some interesting observations on San Francisco and California in 1849.
Howe, Octavius Thorndike. Argonauts of '49: History and Adventures of the Emigrant Companies from Massachusetts 1849-1850 Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1923.
Hunt, Rockwell D., "Pioneer Protestant Preachers in Early California," Pacific Historical Review 19 (January 1949): 84-96.
Ingalls, John. "California letters of the gold rush period;: The correspondence of John Ingalls, 1849-1851," Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society (1937):145-182. First few letters contain information on his voyage from New York, New York to San Francisco, California in the ship Pacific.
Johnson, Samuel Roosevelt. California; A Sermon, Preached in St. John's Church, Brooklyn, N. Y., on Sunday, February 11, 1849, by Samuel Roosevelt Johnson, D. D., Rector New York: Stanford and Swords, 1849. Preached on the occasion of the departure of the bark St. Mary for California.
Kihn, Phyllis. "Connecticut and the California Gold Rush: The Connecticut Mining and Trading Company," Connecticut Historical Society Bulletin 28 (1963): 1-13. The Company owned and sailed in the schooner General Morgan. Based in part upon the journal, February 22-August 5, 1849, of Albert Lyman during the voyage from New York, New York to San Francisco, California.
Kull, Irving Stoddard. "The New Brunswick Adventurers of '49" Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society, New Series 10 (January 1925): 12-28. Discusses formation of the New Brunswick & California Mining and Trading Company and the voyage of that group from New York, New York to San Francisco in the bark Isabel in 1849.
Latham, William B. "The Barque Stafford, the Record of Her Voyage to California. List of Passengers," The Society of California Pioneers Publications, (1943): 51-60.
Levy, JoAnn. They Saw the Elephant: Women in the California Gold Rush Hamden, Connecticut: Shoe String Press, 1990. The second chapter deals with traveling to California by sea by both the Cape Horn and the Isthmian routes.
Lewis, Oscar. Sea Routes to the Gold Fields: The 18, 000 Mile Migration by Water to California 1849-1852 2 New York: A. A. Knopf, 1949.
Lorenz, Anthony J. "Scurvy in the Gold Rush," Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 12 (1957): 473-510.
Marshall, Philip C. "New Jersey Expeditions to California in 1849," Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society 70 (January 1952): 17-36.
Marx, Jennifer. The Magic of Gold, Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1978. Contains two introductory chapters on gold in general and where and how it has been found and mined followed by thirteen chapters on the history of gold from the Pharaohs to the 20th century. Chapter 14 contains a small amount of information on the California gold rush of 1849-1852.
Morgan, William Ives. "The Log of a Forty-Niner," Harper's Magazine 113 (February 1906): 920-926. Extracts from his diary, 1849-1853 including his account of sailing around Cape Horn in the bark John Walls, Jr. in 1849.
Morse, Edwin Franklin. "The Story of a Gold Miner: Reminiscences of Edwin Franklin Morse," California Historical Society Quarterly 6 (September 1927): 205-237. Pages 205-212 contain a brief account of his voyage, December 5, 1849-June 17, 1850, from Boston, Massachusetts to San Francisco, California in the ship Cheshire under the command of Captain J. W. Dicks.
Nash, Jared C.: To the Goldfields Around the Horn: From Maine to California in the schooner Belgrade: The Diary and Letters of Jared C. Nash, 1849
Palmer, Robert H. A Voyage 'Round Cape Horn
Parsons, John E. (Ed.) "Nine Cousins in the California Gold Rush," New York Historical Society Quarterly 47 (1963): 349-397. Nine cousins sailed from New York, New York for California in 1849. Their adventures were recorded in the letters written home by William J. Emmet and Herman R. LeRoy. Some of the letters deal with the voyage of three of them in the ship Christovol Colon under the command of Captain Francis C. Coffin.
Payson, George. Golden Dreams and Leaden Realities . New York: G. P. Putnam & Co., 1853. Has an introductory chapter by Francis Fogie, Sr., Esq. Pages 15-75 contain an account of the voyage of the ship Magnolia from New Bedford, Massachusetts to San Francisco, California in 1849. The book was originally published as being Golden Dreams and Leaden Realities by Ralph Raven. Payson called the ship Leucothea and used pseudonyms for many of the individuals. S. M. Collins, who was also a passenger in the Magnolia provided the real names for those individuals in the transcribed copy of his journal.
Pomfret, John E. (Ed.) California Gold Rush Voyages, 1848-1849: Three Original Narratives San Marino, California: Huntington Library, 1954. Contains the journal of C. H. Ellis during the voyage from Boston, Massachusetts to San Francisco, California in the brig North Bend under the command of Captain R. G. Higgins, pp 11-96; brief notes of John N. Stone of the voyage of the ship Robert Bowne, pp. 97-176; and journals kept on board the steamer California from New York, New York to San Francisco, California.
Reynolds, Jerry. The Golden Dream of Francisco Lopez, Newhall, California: Santa Clara Valley Historical Society, n.d.
Richardson, Katherine Wood, "The Gold Seekers: The Story of the LaGrange and the California Pioneers of New England," Essex Institute Historical Collections, 115 (1979):73-122. Reconstruction of the voyage of the bark LaGrange from Salem, Massachusetts to San Francisco, California, March-September, 1849. Has a month by month record of the voyage and a roster of passengers including the members of the Salem and California Mining and Trading Company. Also has 14 illustrations.
Richardson William H. "The Argonauts of Jersey City," Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society, New Series, 11 (1926): 170-186; 369-377; and 525-532. Brief accounts of various individuals, groups, and vessels which went from New Jersey to California in 1849.
Roberts, Sidney. To Emigrants to the Gold Region. An Appeal to Citizens of the U. S., the Martyrdom of the Two Prophets, Joseph and Hiram Smith--Doctrines of the Latter Day Saints--on the Melchizadek Priesthood--The Materiality of the Soul. A Treatise Showing the Best Way to California, with Many Serious Objections to Going by Sea, Doubling the Cape, or Crossing the Isthmus, with the constitution and articles of Agreement, of the Joint Stock Mutual Insurance Merchandizing company. By Sidney Roberts, of Iowa City, Iowa, Traveling Agent for the Company. New Haven: no publisher, January 1, 1849.
Robinson, Warren T. Dust and Foam or, Three oceans and two continents; being ten years' wanderings in Mexico, South America, Sandwich islands, the East and West Indies, China, Philippines, Australia and Polynesia
Rydell, Raymond A. "The California Clippers," Pacific Historical Review 18 (January 1949):70-83. Reprinted in John Walton Caughey Rushing for Gold Berkeley: University of California Press, 1949. American Historical Association, Pacific Coast Branch, Special Publication No. 1.
"Sacramento's Prison Ship the LaGrange," Golden Notes 20 (October 1974):1-12. Story about the bark which sailed from Salem, Massachusetts in 1849.
Schaeffer, L. M. Sketches of travels in South America, Mexico and California.
Schultz, Charles R. "A Forty-Niner Fourth of July," Log of Mystic Seaport 38
Shepard, George and S. L. Caldwell. Addresses of Rev. Professor George Shepard and Rev. S. L. Caldwell, to the California Pilgrims, from Bangor, Maine. Smith & Sayward, printers, 1849. Reprinted by the Meriden Gravure Company and the Carl Purington Rollins Printing-Office of the Yale University Press, Christmas 1966 for Frederick W. Beinecke in a limited edition of 350 copies. These two sermons were preached at the Hammond Street Church in Bangor, Maine on January 21, 1849 for the benefit of the passengers who were about to sail for San Francisco in the bark Suliote under the command of Captain J. Simpson and the schooner Eudorus under the command of Captain Charles L. Wiggin. Passenger lists for the two vessels are included in the reprint taken from the Bangor Daily Whig and Courier.
Smith, Charles H. Historical Sketch of the Lives of William Wiggin Smith and Joseph Hiram Smith, a Pair of New England Twins Who Became California Pioneers in 1849. Avalon, California: Privately Printed, 1942. Pages 21-35 contain an account of their voyage, January 11-July 6, 1849, from Boston, Massachusetts to San Francisco, California in the brig Forest under the command of Captain N. Varina.
Taylor, William. California Life Illustrated. New York: Published for the author by Carlton & Porter, 1860.
Thomas, Martin E. "Sea Voyages to El Dorado with a Descriptive Bibliography of Journals and Letters, 1848-1856." MA Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, California, 1937. Actually it is called a "Special Study" rather than a thesis. It is an extensively annotated bibliography of published and unpublished accounts of voyages, both Cape Horn and Isthmian, to San Francisco. Includes reference to twenty-five published and twenty-one, unpublished accounts.
Tibbits, Hall J. Statement of Hall J. Tibbits, Master of the American Ship Pacific, as to His Removal from the Command of Said Ship, by Gorham Parks, U. S. Consul, at Rio de Janeiro New York: George F. Nesbitt, Stationer and Printer, 1849. This small pamphlet contains some introductory remarks by Captain Tibbits and copies of nineteen documents on file at the U. S. Consulate in Rio de Janeiro relating to the removal of Tibbits. All of the documents were selected by Tibbits to further his cause in having himself restored to command of the Pacific. He was successful in that campaign and met the ship in San Francisco and resumed command of her. An original exists at the California State Library, California Section, Sacramento, California.
Wells, Thomas Goodwin, "Letters of an Argonaut from August, 1849 to October, 1851," Out West 22 (January 1905): 48-54, (March 1905): 136-42, and (April 1905): 221-28. Wells was one of the founders of the Cheshire Company organized in southwestern New Hampshire late in 1849 to go to California. They sailed from Boston, Massachusetts to San Francisco, California in the ship Sweden under the command of Captain Jesse G. Cotting. None of the letters contain any information on the voyage, but a couple of them contain early impressions of San Francisco.
Whidden, John D. Ocean Life In The Old Sailing Ship Days, From Forecastle To Quarter-deck by Captain John D. Whidden Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1912. Pages 78-83 contain brief mention of his voyage from Boston, Massachusetts, to San Francisco, California in the bark Tiberias under the command of Captain Elisha Foster.
Winslow, Helen L. "Nantucket Forty-Niners: Gold Rush Voyages and a Passenger's Journal of a Voyage Around the Horn," Historic Nantucket 4 (January 1956): 6-28.