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The Nile: Cats & Goddesses

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Egyptian Cat Goddesses and the Underworld

Cat or Lion headed gods were believed to guard certain halls and gates in the Underworld. Lion gods and goddesses are therefore associated with the dead and the Underworld (Duat). The heads of biers depicted the head of a lion or lioness. The foot of biers were often ornamented with a cat’s tail. A bier is movable frame on which a coffin, or a corpse, is placed before burial on which it is carried to the grave.

The Temples at Leontopolis were famous as the cult center of the lion gods and cat goddesses. Leontopolis was the name of the ancient city where all the lion-headed and cat-headed gods associated with Ra the sun god were worshipped. Leontopolis was located in the central area of the Nile delta. The ancient Egyptian name for Leontopolis was Taremu.

Ancient animals of Egypt.
Ducks, Nests, Butterflies, Cats

Cats were first domesticated in ancient Egypt; all were wild until ancient Egyptians began sharing their homes with them over 6,000 years ago. Cats began to appear on objects of everyday life. There were gold cats on intricate bracelets, small golden cat pendants, cats amulets made of soapstone for necklaces and rings. Women made up their faces holding mirrors with cats on the wooden handles and on their cosmetic pots. Ordinary people could enjoy the protection of the cat goddess through their amulets on their clothing or around their necks or in their earlobes. Cats even figured in dream interpretation. In one book of ancient dreams, it was said that if a man sees a cat in a dream, it means he will have a good harvest.

All of today’s cats are descended from Egyptian wild cats.

Egyptians loved their cats, and considered them to be protectors of the house. Most cats did not have names; they were just called Ta-Mieuw, or “The Meower.” Cats were so spoiled in Egypt, that some even wore jewelry, such as earrings.

After death, the housecat was mummified and given a decent burial. One prince of Egypt, Thutmose, had his little female cat, “Ta-Miewet”, buried with him in a stone coffin of her own.

The cat lived well in Egypt, even when the state religion changed to Christianity, and later, Islam. There is a legend that the Prophet Mohammed so loved cats, that he cut the sleeve off his own coat, rather than wake a kitten that had fallen asleep on it.

Obsequies of an Egyptian Cat.
The Obsequies of an Egyptian Cat

This temple scene is of a cat goddess being worshipped. The lotus flower features strongly in the picture, as does the incense burner. Incense offerings were made on a daily basis and scent played such an important part in temples, daily life and magical rituals. Only priests, priestesses and royalty were allowed inside temples. Ordinary Egyptians worshipped and made offerings at small shrines in their homes. A statue of the cat goddess might have been placed on the altar table and ancient Egyptians prayed and gave offerings to the god whilst kneeling on a reed mat.

John Reinhard Weguelin

Another legend says that Egyptian cats are striped, because those are the finger marks where the Prophet petted their ancestors. Even today, cats are treated better in Egypt than in many other parts of the Near and Middle East.

The cat seems to have served as a retriever in fowling expeditions, and even in fishing. It seems strange that no mention of the cat occurs in the Bible or in any Assyrian record. Its Sanscrit name is marjara, from a root meaning to clean, from the creature’s habit of licking herself at her toilet.

July 30, 1893, San Francisco Call
San Francisco, California

Egyptian Reverence of Cats.

The cat is well known as having been an object of worship in Egypt. The Goddess Phsht, many of whose statues may be seen in the British Museum, was always represented with the head of a cat; a temple was dedicated to her at Benl Hassan, which is as old as the eighteenth dynasty, 1500 years B. C. E.

Cats that died were buried in countless thousands in pits near the temple, having been first of all embalmed and converted into mummies. The examination of the skulls proved that the cat, domesticated by the Egyptians, was really a North African species, known to the naturalists as Felis maniculata. This is rather smaller than our ordinary domestic cat and of a yellowish color, with some dark stripes on the body.

Plastered and Painted Wood Sarcophagus of a Cat.
Plastered and Painted Wood Sarcophagus of a Cat

The domesticated cats of the Egyptians was venerated by them. Herodotus recounts the fact that when a cat died a natural death in a house the inhabitants shaved oil their eyebrows, and when a fire occurred the people were more anxious to save their cats than to extinguish the conflagration.

Cat a Birdcatcher in Ancient Times

May 12, 1917, Sausalito News
Sausalito, California, U.S.A.

If we may judge from pictorial representations on the buildings, tombs and monuments of the ancient Egyptians, the principal early use made of the animal was as a killer and retriever of birds. To the ancient Egyptians, birds (except the sacred Ibis and the hawk) meant meat. Apparently these people were able to utilize the bird catching propensities of the cat and to train her even to enter the water and catch or retrieve waterfowl.

Hunting with cats.
A Painting from the Tomb of Nebamun
Standing on a reed boat hunting birds

In the Egyptian gallery of the British museum there is a painting of a man in a boat engaged in throwing a crooked instrument like a boomerang at a flock of birds, and on the same tablet a cat much like our common striped tabby, (the word tabby does not refer to the sex of the cat but to its markings) but with longer legs
tall, is represented as seizing a duck by one wing, while she has a shorttailed bird like a quail and another apparently a songbird, under her feet . . .

When humans were predominantly hunters, dogs were of great use, and thus were domesticated long before cats. Cats, on the other hand, became useful to people when we began to settle down, till the earth and store surplus crops. With grain stores came mice, and when the first wild cats wandered into town, the stage was set for what Science study authors call “one of the more successful ‘biological experiments’ ever undertaken.” The cats controlled the abundance of prey in the storehouses.

Cats were also valued for their mysterious and superstitious qualities. There is a myth that the Egyptians once won a battle because of cats. They were fighting a foreign regiment and just at the time of attack by the foreigners, the Egyptian released thousands of cats at the front lines. Seeing the onslaught of these terrifying creatures, the foreign army retreated in panic.

Buy at Art.com
Bast, Egyptian Cat Goddess
Goddess of Love
Michaela Akers

Ubastet (Bastet)

Also knjown as Bast, Pasht. Cat-goddess of Bubastos and Thebes. Bastet was often depicted as having the body of a woman and the head of a domestic cat. She was associated with the Eye of Ra, acting within the sun god’s power. The Egyptians loved Bastet so much that she became a household goddess and protector of women, children and domestic cats. She was also the goddess of sunrise, music, dance, pleasure, as well as family, fertility and birth.
Her supposed evil counterpart was the goddess Sekhmet who represented the cat goddess’ destructive force. She is known as the goddess of war and pestilence. But even she was tamed by Ra (who supposedly got her drunk) and she eventually became the powerful protector of humans. Together, Bastet and Sekhmet represented the balance of the forces of nature.

Cults and celebrations were devoted to Bastet by ancient Egyptians. In northern Egypt, around 3200 B.C., the city Bubastis came into being. This was the center of worship for the goddess Bastet, which simply means “she who comes from Bast.” Once a year around October 31, the festival of Bastet would occur with hundreds of thousands of people making pilgrimages to Bubastis and other ancient cities including Memphis. There was singing and wine; as the evening ended, there was also prayers to Bastet, accompanied by music and incense.

Sekhmet

Sekhmet (Sakhmet) is one of the oldest known Egyptian deities. Her name is derived from the Egyptian word “Sekhem” (which means “power” or “might”) and is often translated as the “Powerful One.” She is a lioness-headed goddess of Memphis, the Delta, and the thirteenth nome of Upper Egypt. A warlike goddess who attacks the enemies of the gods and of the pharoah. She often wears the solar disk on her head, and is seen as an eye of Ra. She is associated with the cat goddess, Ubastet, who is of a friendlier disposition. Sekhmet was usually depicted in human form with the head of a lioness and crowned by the solar disk, confirming her association with the sun god Ra. She was often closely associated with Hathor (the goddess of joy, music, dance, sexual love, pregnancy and birth). In this partnership, she was seen as the harsh aspect of the friendly Hathor. Sekhmet was closely associated with Kingship. She was often described as the mother of Maahes, the lion god who was a patron of the pharaoh and the pyramid texts (from dynasty five) suggest that the Pharaoh was conceived by Sekhmet.

Hem-hor

“Servant of Horus” – a lion-headed god.

Hetmet (Hetmit)

“The Destroyer” is depicted as is Epet, but with a lion’s head.

Egyptian Cat.
Brass Head of a Cat

Hu

“Taste, Feeling, Wisdom” is a god shown in sphinx form. He is a god of plenty. His name is thought to originate as an onomatopoeia of the act of drawing breath, although it can also be translated, in which situation it means eternity.He often accompanied the solar deity in his boat. The attribute of Atum that mattered most, was one with which Pharaohs were keen to associate themselves. Consequently, as sometimes Pharaohs depicted their divine power in statuary as a sphinx, a seated, human-headed, lion, Hu was occasionally shown in this form. In particular, in years much later after its construction, the Great Sphinx, at Giza, was seen as a representation of Hu.

Literary Fiction


The Gospel According to Yeshua’s Cat

  C. L. Francisco, PhD

Amelia Peabody’s Egypt:
A Compendium

Elizabeth Peters

Crocodile on the Sandbank.Egypt.
Crocodile on the Sandbank
(Amelia Peabody, Book 1)

A Mystery Novel set along the Nile.Author Elizabeth PetersEgypt. is a New York Times best-selling novelist. She also earned a Ph.D. in Egyptology at the University of Chicago, thus the setting of much of this 19-book series: Egypt and the antiquities along the River Nile. Set during the late 1800s the tales start when British Amelia Peabody travels to Egypt to quench her thirst for history.

Egypt.
Tomb of the Golden Bird.Later works, such as Tomb of the Golden BirdTomb of the Golden Bird., have Amelia travelling to Palestine where an English adventurer is planning to excavate Jerusalem’s Temple Mount in search of the Ark of the Covenant.Her writing is brilliant and hysterically, ascerbically humorous, which seems somewhat unusual in books including tomb robbers and murderers.

.Cario.
Ships, Shipping, Migration, World Seaports.Palace Walk
The Cairo Trilogy, Volume 1Ships, Shipping, Migration, World Seaports.
Written by the Noble Prize winner Naguib Mahfouz, Palace Walk is the first book in his Cairo Trilogy. Palace Walk is about a merchant living in Cairo, who makes his family follow strict religious social rules while he breaks all of them himself.

Egypt.
Egypt.Ancient Egypt
Archaeology Unlocks the Secrets of Egypt’s Past

Egypt.National GeographicEgypt.
Cheops.The Pyramid Builder: Cheops, the Pharaoh Behind the Great Pyramid
Cheops.Christine El-Mahdy
Egypt.
Egypt.Treasury of Egyptian Mythology:
Classic Stories of Gods,
Goddesses, Monsters & Mortals
(National Geographic Kids)National Geographic Egypt.

Mafdet

She was depicted in various cat forms, including a lynx, lion, cheetah or panther or leopard as a war goddess of protection of the early dynastic periods. She is the original cat-deity who kill the serpent Apophis. Later this job taken on by a cat-god called “the one like a she-cat.” In this aspect she is shown holding a knife. She was called the “Runner.” “She who runs swiftly,” was an early deification of legal justice in the form of executions and was believed to make rulings at judgment hall in the Underworld (Duat) where enemies of the pharaoh were decapitated with the claw of Mafdet.

Matit

“The One Like a Lioness” a lioness-goddess associated with Hathor from the twelfth and fifth nomes of Upper Egypt.

Mau

The ancient Egyptian word for cat, a personification of the sun god Ra, as a cat who killed Apep.

Mehet-Weret

One form of the Goddess Neith, Mehet-Weret also appears as a separate goddess who name means “great flood,” connecting her with the fertilizing wters of the Nile flood. She was a cosmic goddess who took teh shape of the cow who raised the sun into the sky each day. She was shown as a pregnant woman with hugh breasts or a cow-headed woman holding a lotus. A lioness-goddess of the city of This.

Menehtet

Menhet, Menhit. A lioness-headed goddess, sometimes, like Sekhmet and other solarized divinties, wore the solar disk. She was worshipped near Heliopolis and also was identified with Neith and confused with the solar serpent Mehen. .

Men’et

“Nurse:” A lioness-headed goddess who is mentioned at Edfu and associated with Hathor as the wife of Horus.

Merui

A god who originally had a lion form, who was later shown as a human. Called a “son of Horus” and was worshipped at Kalabsheh in Nubia near the Frist Cataract.

Mihos (a.k.a. Mahos)

The “Grim Looking Lion.” A lion-formed war-god, said to be the son of Re and Ubastet. Worshipped in the tenth nome of Upper Egypt and associated with Shu and Nefertem.

He was usually represented as a lion rising up in the act of devouring a captive.

Nefertum

Associated with Mihos. A god who is sometimes shown in lion form. At Memphis he is said to be the son of Ptah and Sekhmet, and in Heliopolis he was said to be the son of Re and Ubastet. In art, Nefertum is usually depicted as a beautiful young man having lotus flowers around his head, although, as the son of Bast, he also sometimes has the head of a lion or is a lion or cat reclining. Nefertem was associated both with the scent of the lotus flower and its narcotic effect, which in ancient Egypt was used for medical anesthetics. The ancient Egyptians often carried small statuettes of him as good-luck charms.
Pekhet (Pakhet)

“She who scratches.” A lioness goddess of Middle Egypt. A huntress who roamed the desert protecting the living and the dead from evil. The Greeks associated her with Artemis. This early lioness goddess’ name means “the one who tears,” or “the scratcher.” Although the Egyptians had many lion divinities, Pakhet was one of the most aggressive and fearsome. She was especially honored in the desert land of Speos Artemidos (cave of Artemis), a Greco-Egyptian name that points to the identification of Pakhet with that wilderness goddess. There, a cemetery like that of Bast at Bubastis provided a location for the burial of sacred cats.

Shemtet

A mysterious goddess who has a head of a lioness.

Shu (Shuet)

“The One of Shu” a form of the lioness-headed Tefenet, representing a person’s shadow.

Shu means dryness and “he who rises up.” In a much later myth, representing the terrible weather disaster at the end of the Old Kingdom, it was said that Shu and his siser Tefnut argued, and Tefnut (moisture) left Egypt for Nubia (which was always more temperate). It was said that Shu quickly decided that he missed her, but she changed into a cat that destroyed any man or god that approached.

Sonet-nofret

Also named T-sonet-nofret, “the Fine Sister” a goddess of Ombos, associated with Tefenet. Sometimes shown with a lioness-head or as Hathor. She was wife of Horus of Ombos and had a son, P-neb-taui, by him.

Tefenet

Lioness-headed, or sometimes lioness-bodied, goddess of the air. Wife of Shu (who also sometimes takes Lion-form). She is associated with the hot winds, sun and moisture.

Tefnut is a goddess of moisture, moist air, dew and rain. She is the sister and consort of the air god Shu and the mother of Geb and Nut.Tefnut is a leonine deity, and appears as human with a lioness head when depicted as part of the Great Ennead of Heliopolis. The other frequent depiction is as a lioness, but Tefnut can also be depicted as fully human. In her fully or semi anthropomorphic form, she is depicted wearing a wig, topped either with a uraeus serpent, or a uraeus and solar disk, and she is sometimes depicted as a lion headed serpent. Her face is sometimes used in a double headed form with that of her brother Shu on collar counterpoises.

Tefnut is a daughter of the solar god Atum-Ra. Married to her brother, Shu, she is mother of Nut, the sky and Geb, the earth. Tefnut’s grandchildren were Osiris, Isis, Set and Nephthys. Alongside her father, brother, children and grandchildren, she is a member of the Ennead of Heliopolis.

Egyptan bronze cat.
An Egyptian bronze figure of a cat
664-30 B.C.E.

Weret-hekau (Urthekau)

Weret-hekau (Urthekau) was a lion headed goddess who was also depicted as a snake with the head of a woman. She was the wife of Re-Horakhty and wore his symbol (the sun disc) on her head along with a cobra on her brow. As she took either the form of a lion or a snake and protected the sun god, she is also associated with Wadjet and Sekhmet and the story of the “eye of Ra.” Because she was a powerful symbol of protection, her name along with the symbol of a snake often appears on magical weapons buried with the dead to help them protect themselves in the underworld.

On the Road . . . Still . . .

This post features stuff that is important to bring along. These are items considered long-time necessities after traveling around the world to 30 countries including Japan, Thailand, French Polynesia, Australia, France, Greece, Italy, England, Ireland, Turkey, Costa Rica, Mexico, kayaking through the San Juan Islands and the Sea of Cortez, and floating on cruise ships throughout the Carribbean and in the Mediterranean, . . . mustn’t forget the Channel Islands — both of them — off the coast of California and in the English Channel.

Most Important: Your Feet

Find and test the most comfortable shoes you can find before leaving home.

Teva-SandalBe POSITIVE that they suit your foot shape. If you have not walked a lot, you may not realize the type of support you need for your arches. If you have really high arches, without the correct footwear, i.e. excellent arch support such as that of Teva Women’s Zirra SandalMerrell Shoes., or just about anything by Merrill, you might be uncomfortable.
Shoes-Merrell-Sandal

Friends, on the other hand, have much lower arches and need to find a more moderate solution. One generally travels with shoes of varying heel heights and changes according to immediate need(s).

Whatever you are most comfortable in around your own city will probably be what will work best on the road . . . unless you are covering terrain new to you, walking more than usual, and/or unless you’re like ladies who wander around in 4″ heels. (Although I did tour much of Europe in stacked heels during the ’70s ’cause that is what I was used to. No problems!).

On the Road Again . . .

FIRST . . .

Think about your absolute basic needs to make you comfortable.
During a summer at Oxford in England, an elegantly dressed classmate travelled impressively minimally. Her method was layering . . . cashmere sweaters. She had about four of them with her, along with a rain jacket, Levis, dress slacks, couple of T-shirts, water-proof boots and well-made sandals. If I saw her packing, I would have thought her, uh, impractical. However, it worked so well, that we’ve adopted some of her ideas and that now pretty much how we now travel. Additions include a Mandarin silk jacket for evenings; it packs flat. Oh, and a bathing suit.

We learned from the classmate and while we travel exceptionally light, there are a few things necessary for comfort and for safety. Being flexible also opens up last-minute opportunities because you will not be carting lots of unneeded stuff around. The historic Singel Hotel in Amsterdam has a store room for those who decide to hop trains for a few days or weeks without having to lug around their stuff.

ACCESSORIES

Compass, food and water containers, storm shelter such as the Kelty Salida 2 Person TentKelty Salida Tent. (winner of Backpacker Magazine Editor’s Choice Awards), Kelty’s Grand Mesa (a free-standing design) or Acadia, REI’s Half-Dome 2-person tent, or The North Face Talus 4 TentNorth Face Tent.. All important, especially if you are hiking into any region new to you or if it’s an area known for its dramatic climate changes, i.e. anywhere in England, Wales, Ireland, Scotland, Oregon or Washington in the U.S. . . .

BASE LAYERS: Jackets

Always have a waterproof jacket with you. Our outer layers are lightweight and waterproof; everything else can be layered. I’m still wandering around with a 30-year-old Banana Republic jacket (made by the Ziegler’s, the original owners). The jacket is light weight, has sufficient pockets, IS waterproof, and folds inside itself so it can be used as a travel bag. Closest to it is Columbia’s Men’s HydroTech Packable Rain JacketPackable rain jacket., which looks good and has it’s own stuff sack. Other possibilities: Outdoor Research Men’s Horizon JacketWaterproof outdoor jacket.Kathmandu., Columbia Sportswear Men’s Evapouration JacketColumbia Sportswear., Puma Track Jacket from The North Face.

BACKPACKS, DAY PACKS

There are enough versions to pretty much get a one-size that works for everything.

Well worth checking out: Black Diamond Anthem BackpackBackpack. which weighs about 2.5 pounds.

Suggestion: If you have friends who offer to loan you their 30-year-old favorite backpack, politely decline. Newer designs are lighter and mold better on your upper body, which makes wandering around much easier.

WATERPROOF: EVERYTHING

BOOTS, SHOES, HIKING SANDALS

The Right Shoes.

Hiking-BootsHi Tec Hiking Boot.Think about where you are going, your plans, and expected the unexpected: You might come across a mountain you want to climb.

Buy new gear, especially foot wear, 30-60 days before you leave home, spend lots of time wandering on terrain similar to where you will be going if possible. Our favorites include Hi-Tec Men’s Altitude IV Hiking BootHi Tec Boots., TevaTeva., and just about anything by Merrill.

Be sure any shoes, boots or sandals are REALLY comfortable and fit well. If you don’t have a favorite for casual walking around try TevaTeva. with selections to cover just about any terrain. They are among the world’s leading sport-lifestyle companies. Something like the Teva Women’s Zirra SandalTeva Sandals. will take you just about anywhere in the world. Be sure they are REALLY comfortable and fit well.

Travel Light.

To make your trip enjoyable, unless you are going on a cruise ship where you do not have to pack/unpack/pack, or unless you have your own personal sherpa, travel light.

We spent two months on the road starting in Tahiti and ending in Japan (with Roratonga, New Zealand, Australia and Thailand in between) with this type of set up and did not feel inconvenienced at all.

If you are on a long trip, do what Europeans do: Ship home any items you no longer need or that you purchased enroute and don’t want to carry around.

If you travel where the dollar is still strong, consider purchasing needed items as you travel and follow the examples of European travellers: Ship it home. Don’t lug around things you don’t need.

Luggage

If it doesn’t wheel, don’t travel with it. Wheeling your stuff around is MUCH easier on you, your friends and family. Make sure it can be picked up if need be, but roll it the rest of the time.

Luggage-Eagle-CreekNested or stack-on luggage with wheels is particularly practical if you’re wandering through countries by hopping trains and using local transportation to get around.

If you are using various modes of transportation Eagle Creek Luggage Load Warrior Wheeled Duffel 22Eagle Creek Luggage. is particularly useful. Airplane aisles are getting narrower by the year, they are the width of food/beverage carts, which is narrower than lots of carry-on bags, i.e. less than 17 inches. I just returned from a trip where in order to fit down the aisle, two little side pockets had to be emptied. Luggage smaller than L14″ x W9″ x H22″ is typically referred to as a carry-on bag and will meet most domestic airlines’ carry-on size standards, but know that “puddle jumper” flights anywhere in the world might be on smaller aircraft; USAir between Arizona and Texas is so small that some carry-on won’t make it.

We were a 14-passenger flight from Ochos Rios to Kingston, Jamaica some years ago. That plane did everything but roll.

Be sure to measure and count your camera bag and/or laptop bag and/or purse/briefcase as separate carry-on items. Airplanes are getting stricter.

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Where Are You From?

Odds are your ancestors travelled by sea or via extensive overland routes during the 1400s, 1500s, 1600s, etc.

Do you know your family history? Discoveries are fascinating. 
Find out what your DNA says about you.
23 pairs of chromosomes define you. Through today’s DNA testing, you can bring your ancestry to life.

Find out what percent of your DNA comes from populations around the world, ranging from East Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, Europe, and more. Break European ancestry down into distinct regions such as the British Isles, Scandinavia, Italy and Ashkenazi Jewish. People with mixed ancestry, African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans will also get a detailed breakdown.

You’ll likely discover dozens or even hundreds of people who share DNA and ancestors. The matches you’ll get can range from close family to distant cousins.

Preserve your family’s history by highlighting names, dates, events, and more.

Genetic testing for genealogists has gone mainstream, with costs plummeting as private companies refine their techniques and improve the accuracy of results. For as little as $99, anyone can order a do-it-yourself kit that comes in the mail, then submit their spit for analysis and receive results within six weeks.

Genealogy hobbyists compare locating family tree to a scavenger hunt, laden with clues, surprises and dead ends.

Recently, scientists used the technology to confirm the identity of a skeleton buried beneath a parking lot in Leicester, England, as King Richard III, who died in battle in 1485. The scientists matched the bones to two living maternal-line relatives, according to the University of Leicester, which conducted the analysis along with radiocarbon dating and a skeletal exam.

Closer to home, not everyone is excited about the DNA technology, as some remain cautious about privacy or simply don’t see the need. But for others who are adopted or are trying to explain a gap in their family tree, the tests may provide a crucial breakthrough, experts said.

“I think a lot of people find it of use to them, personally, especially if they are searching for a form of identity they are able to uncover in this way,” said Noah Rosenberg, associate professor at Stanford University’s Department of Biology and expert in evolutionary biology and genetics.

“Many people have a missing relative or have a parent die young and are searching for some kind of connection,” he said. “We see a significant trend where African-Americans are searching for some understanding of the populations from which their ancestors originated from Africa.”

There are no federal regulations that govern the direct-to-consumer ancestry tests, said Hank Greely, a Stanford law professor who specializes in the ethical, legal and social implications of new biomedical technologies. Basically, both state and federal regulation only cover tests sold or done for health purposes.

Popularized in recent years by its use in high-profile criminal investigations and paternity cases, DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid, is most commonly used to prove a relationship to an individual.

New tests created in recent years, however, have also turned DNA into a popular tool for determining ancestry. As DNA is passed down from one generation to the next, some parts remain almost unchanged, while other parts change greatly. This creates a link between generations and it can be of great help in reconstructing our family histories. While it can’t provide you with your entire family tree or tell you who your ancestors are, DNA testing can:

  • Determine if two people are related
  • Determine if two people descend from the same ancestor
  • Find out if you are related to others with the same surname
  • Prove or disprove your family tree research
  • Provide clues about your ethnic origin
Genetic testing.
Genetic Testing

DNA tests have been around for many years, but it is only recently that the cost of genetic testing is becoming affordable for average families  interested in tracing their roots. It is now possible to Map your global origins with the most complete coverage of your DNA. through home DNA test kits which can be ordered through the mail or over the Internet.

America’s Lighthouses

The Fyddeye Guide to America’s Lighthouses
The Fyddeye Guide makes your travel planning easier by showing you hundreds of fascinating lighthouses you can visit today on the east coast, Great Lakes, Gulf Coast, and the west coast, including Alaska and Hawaii. From remote islands in Maine to the metropolises of southern California, you’ll discover the towering historic structures that have inspired travelers for millennia. You can get close to virtually all America’s lighthouses, and many allow you to climb to the top and stay as long as a month in historic buildings.

  • More than 750 lighthouses, conveniently organized by coastal region and state
  • Brief histories and complete contact information, including website, email address, and phone
  • Three maps with suggested itineraries for discovering lighthouses in New England, Michigan, and California
  • Notes on whether you can stay overnight on the lighthouse grounds, possibly in the keepers’ historic quarters
  • Chapters on lightships and historic life-saving stations, including availability of overnight accommodations
  • More than 40 images of lighthouses from coast to coast

With a foreword by leading New England lighthouse photographer Jeremy D’Entremont.


America’s Lighthouses


Books, DVDs, Postcards, Puzzles, Paintings, Water Bottles, Mouse Pads . . . Right: Lighthouses of North America: Beacons from Coast to Coast by Sylke Jackson, a freelance writer with a BA cum laude in Literature from Yale University. Her passion for architectural preservation has led her to work on historic buildings in this country and abroad. Jackson teaches high school English and writing. She also races Lightning sailboats on the Hudson, and always keeps a grateful eye on the lighthouse at Sleepy Hollow, New York.